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Friday, 28 October 2011

Nietzsche, Freud and Marx

Lecture Notes
Frege - 'Sense and Reference' (1890's)

- The 'reference point' of the word 'deofinition' is 'sense' of the word which means its sense within the sentence. This is 'sential logic'.
Inidividual propositions do not have meaning, thye only have mkeaning in relation to other propositions. This is essentially relativity bought to logic.
Frege is the final rejection of syllogistic logic (Aristotle) as a path to truth.
When paradigm shifts occur, it is often in the field of logic first of all.

- 'No fixed meaning' - word emphasis can effect the meaning of what you're saying. Eg - 'I thought she was his wife'. Depending on which word you plae emphasis on, you could be saying something completely different.

- Without logic, all certain knowledge from reason, as opposed to pure sense data, is brought into question.

Friedrick Nietzsche
Source - Flickr: mansionwb
- Sentential logic - please understand and be able to explain this significance of these statements :-
(a) The evning star is the same thing as the morning star.
(b) The present king of France is not bald.
(c) There was nobody on the road.

Marx + Nietzsche + Freud = 'the three great skeptics' - they undermine the concept on enlightenment.
All 3 felt that truth always depends primarily on your perspective.

- 'Subjectivist Epistimology' - concerned with how we know things.
- Modernism = 'Nothing is certain'.

- Marx is the least sceptical and least subjective of the three.
- Nietzsche and Freud came in the following generation.

- Nietzche wrote in a series of outbursts, with particular use of 'Aphorisms'.
- Aphorisms are things such as :-
'God is dead'
'Dog bites man iisn't news, man bites dog is news'
'Mankind is a thing we must overcome'.

What lives on from Marx is the concept of alienation and of ideology. This is still alive and an important idea in social science, practical politics, journalism and in literary criticism.

- Frederick Engles - The origins of the Family State and Private Property and the subject of anthropology, assets that truth and systems of mroality are indeed subjecture and transitory.
- A key word in anthopology is 'taboo'.

Marxists argue that Freud lacks an anthropological basis for his theories, or a political framework.
 - Also that mental unhappiness often comes from issues around power and confromity/inability to conform to social norms - but he underestimates this social basis to subjective feelings and tries (and fails) to treat what Marx would think of 'alienation' as a personal, clinical medical problem.
Freuds 'talking case' is little more than people coming to terms with thier role in life.

- The ego fears death.
- Freud - triumph over the id 'self control' conformity, self realisation, constant psychoanaylsis and self-questioning.
- Nietzsche loves the ego and see's pride as a good thing.

- Nietzsche had a 'herd mentality', and saw 'resentment' as the 'one unforgivable sin'.

- 1885 - Zarathustra - the overman - 'Mankind is a thing that must be overcome'.
- 1895 - The Anti-christ - 'That which does not kill me, makes me stronger'


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